Current status and future prospects of biological routes to bio-based products using raw materials, wastes, and residues as renewable resources

Current fossil-based commercial products pose a serious threat to global reserves of natural resources and the preservation of the natural environment. During recent decades, great efforts have been made to increase the availability of non-utilizable biomass as alternative feedstocks and reduce environmental pollution to achieve a more sustainable bioeconomy. Several bio-sectors have emerged for the production of bio-based products to replace fossil-based equivalents through bioprocesses using biomass feedstocks. Indeed, advanced microbial fermentation technologies encompassing metabolic engineering and genome-based systems biology approaches have enabled the design and development of new bio-based refineries using engineered platform cells. Herein, we focus on recent progress in the area of microbial fermentation-aided bioprocesses for the production of bio-based products derived from naturally occurring biomasses as feedstocks. Furthermore, we discuss the application of bio-based products and remaining technical barriers and assess possible biorefineries.